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Bon Accord



The Bon Accord Settlement of Nichol Township

Early nineteenth century Britain was fraught with widely unpopular political change. Rather than strengthening communities, it reinforced the power of the aristocracy and deprived others of their basic right to vote. Many looked to the colonies with high hopes and great positivity. For a group of friends from Aberdeen, Scotland, emigration was a welcome challenge. Together, they laid the foundations of their ideal community and set out to make it a reality. This is the story of the Bon Accord settlement in Nichol Township, Ontario, how it came to be, who settled it, and, ultimately, what became of it and why.

The Scottish Reform Act of 1832 was an Act of Parliament, which introduced new wide-ranging changes to the election laws throughout Britain. It completely disenfranchised women, while enfranchising those who owned a minimum of £10 worth of property. In effect, what it did was enfranchise the majority of the middle class[1]. Non-property owners “were deemed unworthy to be trusted with the vote,” and since rental values varied, the effects of the Reform Act were markedly different across Britain[2]. In areas where rent was low, even shopkeepers were kept off the voting roll.

George Elmslie, a Bon Accord pioneer, wrote of this trying time in his journal. He described life in Aberdeen, making specific reference to the Reform Act and what it meant to his colleagues and himself:

In 1831-32 the agitation about the Reform Bill, and long continued opposition to it, had caused a great stagnation of business, -Trade was dull; there were many failures; all were in difficulty, and many in distress. A little before this time appeared Mr. Fergusson’s first tour in the United States and Canada, and not long after it his second tour. While the Chambers were publishing letters from actual settlers in Canada, showing their success after some years labour in clearing. The eyes of thousands, therefore, were turned to Canada, as a place of refuge[3].

This passage is evidence that Elmslie and his friends were part of the group who had become disenfranchised through the Reform Act. Elmslie continues in his journal in the following way:

Three friends in Aberdeen (afterwards joined by others) were in the habit of meeting frequently to consider seriously the advantages or disadvantages of emigrating; and at length, after obtaining all possible information, they resolved to go out, settle side by side, and thus form a little Aberdeen colony, and give it the name Bon Accord – from the motto of the Town’s arms. Mr. Elmslie, as being able to wind up his business the most easily, was appointed to go before, and search out a fit location. His instructions were that it should be in a healthy situation – the land fertile, abundant in running streams – and lastly, if Fergus answered the description given by Mr. F., and a sufficient block could be got in its neighbourhood, to prefer it[4].

Sources vary as to who travelled with George Elmslie; variations include his friends, William Gibbon, John Keith and Alexander Watt. George Elmslie’s personal account includes both William Gibbon and Alexander Watt. According to Elmslie, they went to see James Webster about buying land near Fergus. After looking at his plans, they concluded that all of the best lots, the ones bordering on streams and rivers had already been taken. Webster suggested that they go to see a Mr. Gilkinson, as very few of his lots had been sold and they would have the pick of the block. Many of these sites were on the Irvine and other streams[5]. Of Webster’s 7,367 acres of land, Elmslie and his friends purchased 2000 acres[6]. Of this experience, Elmslie writes:

I was now satisfied. We had found a block suitable in all respects for the projected colony; the quality of the soil, as indicated by the trees and their size, was equal to any we had seen; watered in such a manner as we had nowhere seen; the streams living, clear, rapid, and the chief of them on a limestone bed, and therefore healthy; the society was superior to what we could have anticipated – the newer settlers almost entirely Scotch, the older, around and in the neighbourhood of Elora, respectable, intelligent Englishmen; the block bordering on the new and rapidly rising settlement of Fergus, with the immediate prospect of having a church and schools’ the only drawback – far in the woods and the roads exerable [sic][7].

The Bon Accord settlement of Nichol Township was settled by people who have been described as “prominent Scots[8]”, and as urban people, “mostly merchants, clerks and tradesmen”[9]. Whatever their trades, all of them had one thing in common: they all came from Aberdeen, Scotland. The settlement included these men and their families:

George Elmslie was born in the city of Aberdeen, Scotland in 1803. He was a dry goods merchant and had a good education. Elmslie, who was not suited to farming, quickly established himself as Bon Accord’s school teacher. He taught out of his own home for the first 2 years, but moved on to teach in Elora, Ancaster, Guelph, Hamilton and Alma. Elmslie died in Alma on the 19th of October, 1869[10].

Alexander Watt was born at New Deer, Aberdeenshire, Scotland in 1798[11]. He came to Canada in 1834 and purchased land from the Gilkinson Estate. Sources vary on the exact number of acres purchased, but they range between 600 and 800 acres. At that time, this land was completely unbroken forest. He bought it at the rate of £1 (about $5) per acre[12]. There were no developed roads and felled trees acted as bridges. At once, he commenced chopping and clearing, building a shanty until a more permanent log house could be erected[13]. The Watts made a living as thoroughbred stock breeders, raising prize-winning shorthorns[14]. Alexander Watt was one of the few original Bon Accord settlers who made a living in agriculture. He died at the age of 97 years, 11 months, and 11 days[15].

John Keith was born in the Kinknochie Parish of Old Deer, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Keith bought Lot 15, Concession 11 in the Bon Accord settlement in 1834. By trade, he was a carpenter and cabinet maker. He built a good number of the homes in Bon Accord, Elora and Fergus, some of which are still standing today. He also assisted in building the first grist mill in Elora[16]. In 1870, after working many years as a carpenter, he retired in Elora. Part of his land was sold earlier to a Mennonite by the name of Sem Wissler. This land became what is today known as Salem[17]. The rest of the farm was passed down to the children after the death of his wife, Christian Keith, in 1885. Christian Keith died in Elora, Ontario[18]. Interestingly, the Historical Atlas of Wellington County, dated 1906, shows the Keith family as one of two remaining original families.

In 1834, William and Margaret Gibbon arrived with the original Bon Accord settlers. They settled on parts of Lots 11 and 12 of Concession12. In 1835, William’s brother, John Gibbon, arrived in the settlement and made a home on Lot 14, Concession 12[19]. According to a receipt found in Wellington County Museum and Archives, on August 3, 1847, William Gibbon sold part of his land to a Charles Harry Castle for £75[20]. There is little direct information to be found on William and Margaret Gibbon but, in September of 1862, receipts show that William Gibbon joined Henneberry and Company, and together they bought an oatmeal mill and built a flour mill in the nearby village of Aboyne. The same source tells us that the mill was sold on December 5th, 1874 to Mr. Gibbon for $2800[21]. Less than a year later, according to William and Margaret Gibbon’s mortgage, William Gibbon sold the remainder of his land to Duncan McCowen for the sum of $2000, and moved to Elora to retire[22]. The Elora Municipal Cemetery Internment Register (1864-1928) reveals that William Gibbon died in 1880 in Elora. Margaret Gibbon died a year and one day later in Pilkington Township. Both were buried in Elora Cemetery[23].

Bon Accord

A map of the Bon Accord Settlement, sketched by Alex Dingwall Fordyce in 1845, shows it to be an oblong block of about 3000 acres, being Lot 7 to 16 of concessions 11, 12, and 13[24]. A few farms adjoining this block may have been properly included. The term has been applied to the whole western two-thirds of Upper Nichol, but it should be used strictly to apply only to that section which was settled by those who came under George Elmslie, from the neighbourhood of Aberdeen, Scotland. A more official map of Nichol Township, found in the Historical Atlas of Wellington County (1906), shows the villages of Elora, Fergus and Salem, but does not show Bon Accord. It also shows who owned each lot of land, revealing the fact that only two of the original Bon Accord settlers remained in 1906[25]. The last of these, the Watt family, sold their lots in 1961.

Before coming to Canada, the potential emigrants stipulated priorities for their settlement which, apart from their immediate accommodation, were establishment of a church, school, debating society, Temperance Society and singing school[26]. Early settlers’ accounts describe great difficulties, making the importance of good roads very apparent. The proximity of mills, as well as a viable market for their produce was also of great importance. Many accounts also mention the proximity of a post office. George Elmslie’s personal accounts mention a ‘failing village’. The failing village was described in these terms: “It had all the appearance of a failing village; the frame buildings, grey and rickety, few new buildings, scarcely any going up, and no signs of activity or improvements”[27]. A few pages on, he describes what he considers to be a ‘thriving town’: “Brantford even then gave promise of a thriving town, there being several churches, a number of good stores, two or three streets, in some of which the stumps were still standing, mills etc.”[28]. Did the new settlement meet the standards of its inhabitants? If not, what was it lacking?

The Church

A new settlement would be incomplete without the establishment of the church, and in the case of Bon Accord, it was one of the first founded institutions. The first church services were held in Elora in a shanty owned by Mr. Keith and Mr. Watt in the north bank of the Grand River. This was late in the autumn of 1834[29]. “Shortly after, Mr. Gilkinson invited us to his home, where were assembled the villagers and a few of the nearest settlers,” writes George Elmslie in his account. “We had the usual exercises – singing, praying, reading the Scriptures and a sermon”[30]. The congregation was only able to secure the services of ministers for three to four Sabbaths a year during the first six years of its existence. On a site donated by George Barron, on the 11thConcession of Nichol Township, the congregation built its first place of worship. It was known as “The Old Log Church”[31].

By 1848 there were many Presbyterians in and around the town of Elora. Occasionally, there were services held in Elora, probably in the school house. They had been regularly attended, for “there was a desire for more regular diets of worship”[32]. They had asked Reverend Smellie to help them build a Free Church in Elora, but he was reluctant to do so because he thought that it would divide his own congregation in Fergus. So, they turned to the United Presbyterians of Upper Nichol with the request that they move the congregation to the village of Elora. They selected the Church Square as the location of the new church. Knox Presbyterian Church opened for public worship on October 20th, 1850[33]. Bon Accord’s church ceased to exist in 1850, its inhabitants joining the congregation in Elora.

A cemetery was started beside the original church in Bon Accord, on Lot 11, Concession 11. Today, only a memorial cairn and two stones can be found at the site. Many of the remains were moved to the Elora Cemetery. The first stone belongs to Margaret Gibbon, who died at the age of 11 years old on October 16, 1845. The second gravestone carries the following information: “Erected by Wm Logan Salem/In memory of/(stone broken) His Faithful—? Wife/(stone broken) [Ja]net Anderson/(stone broken) Jan. 8, 1857/(stone broken) yrs”[34]. The fact that there are only two stones in the Bon Accord Cemetery parallels the church’s move to Elora. Many of the remains were also moved to the Elora Cemetery, where most of the original settlers were finally laid to rest. Again, this evidence reveals the importance of the proximity of the church, both to the living and the dead.

Bon Accord School

The first school exercises were conducted in the home of George Elmslie in 1834, but soon after that Elmslie moved on to pursue a teaching career in larger, nearby towns. The first school, built in 1839, was located on Elmslie’s farm on Lot 12, Concession 12. The first literary society was formed in the Bon Accord School on the 18th of October, 1839[35]. The Bon Accord School not only served Nichol Township, but served parts of Pilkington Township as well. However, in 1862, Salem decided to build a school of its own and the site of the Bon Accord School was moved to where it stands today on Lot 7, Concession 11[36]. By 1870, the section Bon Accord served was made smaller as Alma established a school of its own as well[37].

This account of the history of the Bon Accord School continues into the time it was written in 1938. It tracks the establishment of new schools in the surrounding area, and makes mention of the Bon Accord School’s reputation in the region, which “was not at all commendable”[38]. The early settlers to Bon Accord were all highly educated and one can assume that they would have wanted the best for their children. The back of a school photograph, taken 1872, shows the name of only one original Bon Accord family (Gibbon), which means that the rest of the original Bon Accord settlers had either moved on, or sent their children to schools in other districts[39].

The Post Office

In 1867, the Post Office was created as a federal department. Although, in Canada, postal operations date from 1755, the postal services were under the control of British authorities until 1851[40]. The nearest post offices to Bon Accord were located in Guelph, Fergus, Salem and Elora. The post office in Guelph was established around 1832[41]. The post office in Fergus was founded on April 6, 1836[42]. Following this, a post office opened in Elora on October 6, 1839[43]. Finally, a post office opened, even closer to Bon Accord, in the village of Salem, on June 1, 1863[44]. No post office ever opened in Bon Accord. The lack of a post office in Bon Accord could be one of the factors that attributed to the dispersal of its original settlers.

Roads

The importance of quality roads in and around a new settlement cannot be understated. Roads allowed farmers to access markets, brought labourers to their settlements, and allowed access to such amenities as schools and churches. When the original Bon Accord settlers arrived in Nichol Township there were no roads. George Elmslie recounts details of their struggle to get to the settlement:

Loud were the complaints, dismal the groaning, dire the sweating at the mud holes, the heavy loads – at the unhappy emigrants; while, as if to warn us of our approaching fate, we every now and then met with some    shattered wheel, some broken axle, or scattered fragments of some unfortunate wagon. We, several times,indeed narrowly escaped the overthrow of our loads, in which case it would have been impossible for us to have reloaded on account of the depth of the holes and unstable footing[45].

Upon settling, the first thing they did was build a ‘practicable road’. The parties who were engaged in this act were Mr. Watt, Mr. Keith, Mr. Gibbon, and George Elmslie. They decided to take the line between the 11th and 12th Concessions, rather than the legal one between the 12th and 13th Concessions. George Elmslie recalls: “The reason why we took this line rather than the legal one between the 12th and 13th cons., were first because it was nearer Elora and would form the front of our farms, but secondly and chiefly, because this line was much easier and freer from obstructions that the other”[46]. This source reveals the importance of being near an already established village.

A very early newspaper, describing agriculture in Wellington County, informed its readers that the market facilities in Nichol Township were “good,” and that of the local industries, the following were already established: “3 grist mills, 1 foundry, 1 saw mill, 2 breweries, 1 tannery, 7 blacksmith and wagon shops; 1 cheese factory at Cumnock”[47]. A road would be needed to access these amenities, since none was to be found in Bon Accord itself.

In a similar periodical, Canadian Agriculturalist, written in 1852, an article written about the state of agriculture in the County of Wellington reads:

Four years ago (1848), the inhabitants of this County had just reason to complain of the great difficulty of reaching a market, in consequence of the almost impassable state of the roads; but, in the course of that four years, an excellent gravel road has been constructed through the centre of it[48].

The road in question is what is currently referred to as Highway 6. It passes through Guelph and, “about four miles North-west of it diverges on the one hand to the village of Elora on the route to the Saugeen, and on the other to the village of Fergus”[49]. The plan and profile of the proposed road from Puslinch to Arthur, dated in 1842, shows the road passing through all major centers, except Elora. A major road is shown leading from Fergus to Elora. From Elora to Bon Accord there was a brush road, now Irvine Street, which ran through the center of present day Elora[50]. What this map shows is that Elora had better access to necessary amenities and markets. Eventually, after Sem Wissler purchased a part of John Keith’s land, erected mills, and founded the village of Salem, another main road was built[51]. By this time, though, the Bon Accord settlers had been in the country for 16 years and had been able to find markets by way of Elora.

Mills

Mills were, arguably, the most important structures in a community. Saw mills provided settlers with the wood they needed to build homes and furniture. Since wheat and flour were the staple food at this time, “the grist mill became the most important element in a community and in the growth of that community”[52].

Originally, mills were powered by water, which meant that they had to be constructed near a constant source of naturally running water. Looking over old maps, one can see mills dotted along the edges of prominent streams and swiftly flowing rivers. Nichol Township was no different. There were mills erected in Fergus, Elora and Aboyne. John Keith helped build the first grist mill in Elora in 1843. He also helped erect the first saw mill at the Elora Falls, though it may have been an unreliable industry. George Elmslie recalls:

My last brush with the wolves happened about a year and a half after this Our saw-mill dam, which was ever breaking out and swallowing up the profits, and something more, in costs of repair – a constant grievance and vexation – so that I was sometimes tempted to join in the joking anthems of a humorous neighbour, “that d-d-dam” had burst out in the midst of a press of work, and we had a “bee” of the settlement to repair it[53].

Other nearby mills, include an oatmeal mill in Aboyne, erected in 1858[54]. Sem Wissler’s grist mill was built in Salem in 1850[55]. Previous to the construction of these, settlers would have used Allan’s Mill in Guelph, which was founded in 1832[56]. The 1845 plan of the township of Nichol shows a saw mill on George Elmslie’s property, near the Irvine River[57]. It does not, however, show a grist mill. This meant that the Bon Accord settlers had to travel to Elora in order to employ a grist mill. George Elmslie does make mention of the Fergus grist mill in his personal accounts. He writes:

Shortly after this the Fergus grist mill, as already mentioned by one of your correspondents, was burnt to the ground, not long after its completion. This was not only a heavy private loss, but a grievous public calamity. A considerable quantity of wheat and other grain, together with a number of bags, was destroyed in the conflagration[58].

Without a grist mill in either Bon Accord or Fergus, farmers would have had to have done business with either the Elora Mill or the Salem mill. Again, settlers had to go outside of their own settlement to finalize a job, which undoubtedly led many to move closer to necessary amenities.

The village of Elora, in 1850, according to a map surveryed by Edwin H. Kertland, had the following amenities:

4 schools

1 grist mill

1 sawmill

1 fulling mill and cloth manufactory

1 foundry

5 stores, including 1 druggist

1 chair factory

1 tin shop

1 distillery

1 ashery

3 taverns

1 temperance house

2 blacksmiths

5 shoemakers

4 tailors

3 coopers

2 wearers

1 cabinet maker

2 wagon makers

8 carpenters

2 framers

2 masons

1 bricklayer

2 brick works

2 doctors

1 attorney[59]

 

Bon Accord, in comparison, had a school, a saw mill and a church (for a while). It could be assumed that life was far more comfortable for those who lived in the village of Elora than for those who lived in the settlement of Bon Accord.

 

Bon Accord, settled in 1834, was comprised entirely of families who emigrated from Aberdeen, Scotland. The first families to emigrate were all heavily influenced by Adam Fergusson’s account, Practical Notes Made During a Tour of Canada. They decided to settle the land on Irvine River in Nichol Township, near the villages of Fergus and Elora. They built a saw mill, which was unreliable since it frequently broke down. They established a church and a school, which over time both moved to Elora. They never had a post office. The nearest grist mills were in Elora, Fergus and Salem. Major roads went to other villages, but there were no major roads to Bon Accord. Their cemetery had merely 2 gravestones, while the other remains were all moved to the Elora Cemetery. In Place Names of Ontario, Floreen Ellen Carter could find only one written record of Bon Accord[60]. It was in the 1906 edition of The Historical Atlas of the County of Wellington, and oddly enough, it wasn’t even on the map where Bon Accord should have been. The only evidence remaining was two gravestones and a reference in an old atlas. It was as if Bon Accord never existed at all… but it did. To those first settlers who in good fellowship emigrated from Aberdeen, Scotland, it was home.

 

References

Burnett, W. A. “History of Bon Accord School, S.S. #2 Nichol Twp” Fergus News Record, 1938. Wellington County Museum and Archives, MU 294, A994.838.

Campey, Lucille H. The Scottish Pioneers of Upper Canada, 1784-1855. Toronto: National  Heritage Books, 2005.

Carter, Floreen Ellen. Place Names of Ontario. London: Phelps Publishing Company, 1984.

Clow, C. The Scottish Settlement of Wellington County, February, 1831. Guelph Civic Museum: Guelph, 1981.

Connon, John. The Early History of Elora and Vicinity. Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 1975.

Dunham, Mabel. Grand River. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1945.

“1842 Plan and Profile of Proposed Road from Puslinch to Arthur,” Wellington County Museum and Archives, Map 467, A980.103.

Elmslie, George. “Reminiscences of Wellington County,” Elora Observer, 1866, Wellington County  Museum and Archives, A991.46.*

Elora Municipal Cemetery Internment Register, 1864-1928.

Evans, Eric J. The Great Reform Act of 1832. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Fordyce, Alex Dingwall. Plan of the Township of Nichol. Wellington County Museum and Archives, 1845. Map 888, A1995.83.

Gibbon Family File Wellington County Museum and Archives A994.276.

Gibbon, William. “Receipt received from Mr. William Gibbon” Wellington County Museum and Archives, A985.76, MU66.

Halls, Isabel. “Land was $5 an acre when Alex Watt bought” Sentinel, 1982.

Hoffer, J.M. The Elora Mill: an essay, Wellington County Museum and Archives, MU46, A982.20.

Irwin, Ross W. Early Agriculture in Wellington County. Wellington County Historical Society, 1993. Wellington County Museum and Archives, A2001.59.

Keith Family File Wellington County Museum and Archives, A994.381.

Kertland, Edwin H. Plan of the Village of Elora, 1850, Wellington County Museum and Archives, Map 416.

Kohli, Marjorie and Frank “Bon Accord Cemetery #4346: Con 11 Lot 11, Nichol Township, Wellington County, pg. 3. Wellington County” Kitchener: Ontario Genealogical Society, 1986.

Knox Presbyterian Church, The History of Knox Church, Elora (Elora: Knox  Presbyterian Church, 1987) Wellington County Museum and Archives, A988.96.

Library and Archives Canada, “Post Offices and Post Masters,” http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/archivianet/post-offices/001001130-e.html

Library and Archives Canada, “Post Offices and Post Masters,” http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/archivianet/postoffices/001001119   01e.php?&isn_i_nbr=6351&interval=24&&PHPSESSID=nk0t8oq99dthtadgfo87m21f2

Library and Archives Canada, “Post Offices and Post Masters,” http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/archivianet/postoffices/001001119   01e.php?&isn_i_nbr=6347&interval=24&&PHPSESSID=okjsl8utkivgpq2ptsacem8m3

Library and Archives Canada, “Post Offices and Post Masters,” http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/archivianet/postoffices/001001119   01e.php?&isn_i_nbr=3950&interval=24&&PHPSESSID=dgu9j7tevilevlho9hsmbklq1

Lloyd, Frank P. “Townships of Nichol and Pilkington,” Historical Atlas of Wellington County. Toronto: Historical Atlas Publishing Company, 1906.

MacKenzie, W.F. Nichol Township History Columns from the Guelph Weekly Mercury and Advisor: June 27, 1907.

Students, teacher and Parents of Bon Accord School, Nichol Township, Dec. 1872, Wellington County Museum and Archives, ph 3051.

Thorning, Stephen. “John Davidson’s Letters from Bon Accord,” Wellington County History, Vol. 2. Fergus: 1989.

Unknown, “End of an Era in Salem with Closing of Mill,” The Guelph Mercury, July 3, 1965.

Unknown. Historical Atlas of Wellington County. Toronto: Historical Atlas Publishing Company, 1906.

Walsh, Viki “Only crumbling ruins left to make site of Aboyne,” The Guelph Mercury, August 5, 1977.

Watt Family File Wellington County Museum and Archives A994.714.

 

*Please note that there are no page numbers in George Elmslie’s journal.


[1] Eric J. Evans. The Great Reform Act of 1832 (New York: Routledge, 1994), 57.

[2] Eric J. Evans. The Great Reform Act of 1832, 61.

[3] George Elmslie, “Reminiscences of Wellington County,” Elora Observer, 1866, Wellington County Museum and Archives A991.46.

[4] George Elmslie, “Reminiscences of Wellington County,” Elora Observer, 1866, Wellington County Museum and Archives A991.46.

[5] George Elmslie, “Reminiscences of Wellington County,” Elora Observer, 1866, Wellington County Museum and Archives A991.46.

[6] Lucille H. Campey, The Scottish Pioneers of Upper Canada, 1784-1855, 141.

[7] George Elmslie, “Reminiscences of Wellington County,” Elora Observer, 1866, Wellington County Museum and Archives A991.46.

[8] Lucille H. Campey, The Scottish Pioneers of Upper Canada, 1784-1855, 139.

[9] Stephen Thorning, “John Davidson’s Letters from Bon Accord” Wellington County History, Vol. 2 (Fergus: 1989), 34.

[10] John Connon, The Early History of Elora and Vicinity (Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 1975), page unknown.

[11] Unknown. Historical Atlas of Wellington County (Toronto: Historical Atlas Publishing Co., 1906), 68.

[12] Isabel Halls, “Land was $5 an acre when Alex Watt bought” Sentinel, 1982, 10.

[13] Unknown. Historical Atlas of Wellington County (Toronto: Historical Atlas Publishing Co., 1906), 68.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Alex Watt “Irvinedale” Watt Family File (Wellington County Museum and Archive, 1928), A994.714.

[16] Keith Family File Wellington County Museum and Archives, A994.381.

[17] Mabel Dunham, Grand River (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1945), 165.

[18] Keith Family File Wellington County Museum and Archives, A994.381.

[19] W. F. MacKenzie Nichol Township History Columns From the Guelph Weekly Mercury and Advisor: June 27, 1907.

[20] William Gibbon “Receipt received from Mr. William Gibbon,” (Wellington County Museum and Archives, A985.76, MU66).

[21] Gibbon Family File Wellington County Museum and Archives A994.276.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Elora Municipal Cemetery Internment Register, 1864-1928, no page.

[24] Alex Dingwall Fordyce, Plan of the Township of Nichol (Wellington County Museum and Archives, 1845), Map 888 A1995.83.

[25] Frank P. Lloyd “Townships of Nichol and Pilkington,” Historical Atlas of Wellington County (Toronto: Historical Atlas Publishing Company, 1906), 86-87.

[26] C. Clow, The Scottish Settlement of Wellington County, February, 1831, (Guelph Civic Museum: Guelph, 1981), 16.

[27] George Elmslie, “Reminiscences of Wellington County,” Elora Observer, 1866, Wellington County Museum and Archives A991.46.

[28] George Elmslie, “Reminiscences of Wellington County,” Elora Observer, 1866, Wellington County Museum and Archives A991.46.

[29] Knox Presbyterian Church, The History of Knox Church, Elora (Elora: Knox Presbyterian Church, 1987), pg. 3.  Wellington County Museum and Archives, A988.96.

[30] George Elmslie, “Reminiscences of Wellington County,” Elora Observer, 1866, Wellington County Museum and Archives, A991.46.

[31] Knox Presbyterian Church, The History of Knox Church, Elora (Elora: Knox Presbyterian Church, 1987), pg.6. Wellington County Museum and Archives, A988.96.

[32] Knox Presbyterian Church, The History of Knox Church, Elora (Elora: Knox Presbyterian Church, 1987), pg. 10. Wellington County Museum and Archives, A988.96.

[33] Ibid., 11-12.

[34] Marjorie and Frank Kohli, “Bon Accord Cemetery #4346: Con 11 Lot 11, Nichol Township, Wellington County,” (Kitchener: Ontario Genealogical Society, 1986).

[35] W.A. Burnett, “History of Bon Accord School, S.S. #2 Nichol Twp” Fergus News Record, 1938. Wellington County Museum and Archives, MU 294, A994.838.

[36] W.A. Burnett, “History of Bon Accord School, S.S. #2 Nichol Twp” Fergus News Record, 1938.

[37] Ibid.

[38] Ibid.

[39] “Students, teacher and Parents of Bon Accord School, Nichol Township, Dec. 1872,” (Wellington County Museum and Archives, ph 3051).

[40] Library and Archives Canada, “Post Offices and Post Masters,” http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/archivianet/post-offices/001001-130-e.html

[41] Library and Archives Canada, “Post Offices and Post Masters,” http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/archivianet/post-offices/001001119.01e.php?&isn_id_nbr=6351&interval=24&&PHPSESSID=nk0t8oqm99dthtadgfo87m21f2

[42] Library and Archives Canada, “Post Offices and Post Masters,” http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/archivianet/post-offices/001001119.01e.php?&isn_id_nbr=6347&interval=24&&PHPSESSID=okjsl8utkivgpq2ptasacem8m3

[43] Library and Archives Canada, “Post Offices and Post Masters,” http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/archivianet/post-offices/001001119.01e.php?&isn_id_nbr=6347&interval=24&&PHPSESSID=okjsl8utkivgpq2ptasacem8m3

[44] Library and Archives Canada, “Post Offices and Post Masters,” http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/archivianet/post-offices/001001119.01e.php?&isn_id_nbr=3950&interval=24&&PHPSESSID=dgu9j7tevilevlho9ohsmbklq1

[45] George Elmslie, “Reminiscences of Wellington County,” Elora Observer, 1866, Wellington County Museum and Archives, A991.46.

[46] George Elmslie, “Reminiscences of Wellington County,” Elora Observer, 1866, Wellington County Museum and Archives, A991.46.

[47] Ross W. Irwin, Early Agriculture in Wellington County (Wellington County Historical Society, 1993), 632, Wellington County Museum and Archives, A2001.59.

[48] Ross W. Irwin, Early Agriculture in Wellington County (Wellington County Historical Society, 1993), 632.

[49]Ibid.

[50] “1842 Plan and Profile of Proposed Road from Puslinch to Arthur,” Wellington County Museum and Archives, Map # 467, A980.103.

[51] Mabel Dunham, Irvine River, 166.

[52] J.M. Hoffer, The Elora Mill: an essay Wellington County Museum and Archives, MU46, A982.20.

[53] George Elmslie, “Reminiscences of Wellington County,” Elora Observer, 1866, Wellington County Museum and Archives, A991.46.

[54] Viki Walsh, “Only crumbling ruins left to make site of Aboyne,” The Guelph Mercury, August 5, 1977.

[55] Unknown, “End of Era In Salem With Closing of Mill,” The Guelph Mercury, July 3, 1965.

[56] Unknown, “Historical: Allan’s Mill,” Wellington County Museum and Archives, Guelph-Mills Folder, A994.27.

[57] Alex Dingwall Fordyce, Plan of the Township of Nichol (Wellington County Museum and Archives, 1845), Map 888, A1995.83.

[58] George Elmslie, “Reminiscences of Wellington County,” Elora Observer, 1866, Wellington County Museum and Archives, A991.46.

[59] Edwin H. Kertland, surveyor, Plan of the Village of Elora, 1850 Wellington County Museum and Archives, Map 416.

[60] Floreen Ellen Carter, Place Names of Ontario (London: Phelps Publishing Company, 1984), 123.

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